Friday, March 27, 2009

American Drug Multinational - Pt.2

2nd Part: The World Dimension of the Drug Business

“In 1988 drug-traffic trade generated $500 billion dollars all together. This is equivalent to French GNP in 1985.” – Mohaen Toumi, Science et Vie, Economie Magazine, November 1989 - (official data always minimize reality)

American Drug Multinational

Drugs Through History

Through research done on the history of civilizations as to the origin of the drugs, we have found that:

In Asia Minor, in 5,000 BC, Sumerian people, who created the cuneiform alphabet, included references to opium poppy in their most ancient writings.

In 3,000 BC, China’s native efedra’s bush, ma-huang, was already inhaled. In 2,737 BC, Emperor Shen Nung, wrote in a Chinese treaty that cannabis sativa be made into tea and used for medical purposes.

By 2,000 BC, cannabis had already been introduced in India and the Hindus were probably the first people to have dried and smoked it.

In Ancient Egypt, papyrus dating 1,500 BC mention fear arising from opium elixir, due to the hallucination it provoked.

Around 400 BC, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, used opium in experiments with medicinal substances. Ever since then, Medicine has not stopped harming human beings with dangerous drugs.

Around 100 AD, Mexico, Aztec Indians created a culture centered around the magic qualities of cacto peyote, from Psilohybin, ololiuqui mushroom, spores which produced an hallucinatory chemical substance similar to LSD.

Around 1,000 AD, Incas from what is today known as Bolivia and Peru, chewed coca leaves to obtain their hallucinatory effects.

In the XI century the word haxixe appeared in Persia, where drugs were associated with criminal activities for the first time. The origin of that name comes from the Persian cult leader, Al-Hansan. It is said that people took haxixe in order to reach ecstasy and obtain a vision of paradise, before facing martyrdom. Then, in that state of intoxication, they attacked their enemies in a suicidal way (haxixe – has the same origin as the word murderer).

Drug-traffic began when the Old World made its first contact with the New World. Expeditions initiated by Columbus found, among other things, cocaine in South America, hallucinatory substances in Central America and tobacco in North America. Such drugs were taken back to European courts where they were very welcome due to the psychological inversion of people who saw great advantage in alienation.

Drug exchange was complete when Europeans introduced distilled alcoholic beverages and Asian cannabis to the Americas (Chile, 1545).

Hindus introduced tobacco in Europe. Shipment of leaves and seeds helped the spread of tobacco cultivation.

In England, which controlled Virginia’s tobacco region, the fever for tobacco reached epidemic proportions, despite its high price. Nicotine gained its name from Jacques Nicot, who brought it to France in 1560 alleging its supposed medicinal potential which, in time yet another proved to be fantasy of medical science.

Describing the habit of smoking, Sir Francis Bacon wrote, In 1623: “Once used to it, one will find very difficult to get rid of such an addiction.”

In 1650 opium started being increasingly used in China. Opium use was already known as a serious health problem. The Manchu dynasty tried to restrain its import but they didn’t succeed because they were powerless against English East India Company’s economic pressure. This company aimed to profit from and dominate people through alienation. In 1839, importing opium was prohibited and all shipments were checked. The result was the 1839-1842 Opium War between China and England where the latter was the winner. The second Opium War took place between 1856-1858.

In the XIX century the use of Opium reached epidemic proportions, mainly in England and America. Tragically the drug was more wide spread in remedies for children. Those medicines were sold under names such as Godfrey’s Cordial, Munn’s Elixir and Mother Bailey’s.

The most popular household guide at the time, “Beeton’s Book of Household Management” saw the need to warn people that certain remedies constantly given to children by nurses and mothers to help them sleep were frequently fatal. 1842 English research so called “The Second Report to the Commissioners”, commented on the dilemma which led poor women to drug their children with opium. Even at that time the drug was already used to exploit people’s slave labor.

German Frederick Engels, in his book, The Condition of the Working Class, England, 1844, described a horrifying increase in drug use, due to the development of a tolerance to such substances in children’s bodies. Because they were given stronger and stronger doses, they became pale, weak, usually dying before they were two years old. The use of this “remedy” was wide-spread in all big cities as well as small villages all around the country.

In the present century the French legalized opium and alcohol trade in Indochina, and created a monopoly of purchase, manufacture, and sales. In the mid-1930s there were 1,500 alcohol and opium distilleries.

Central Asia is the Soviet Union’s drug barn. Eighty percent of the Soviet Union’s narcotic consumption comes from the Moslem provinces.

In all instances of colonization one can note that drugs have been a very destructive merchandise for people but very profitable for traffickers. Such merchandise has brought splendid revenue to the income of a metropolis as much as it has been used to dominate those being colonized. Exploitation becomes easier after one has made the people drug addicts. Dependence occurs on both sides. Not only does the colony depend on the metropolis, but also its inhabitants depend on the drugs. That strengthens the traffic. The same phenomenon is found in dictatorships and imperialist governments due to policies of corruption and exploitation.

The Issue Today

 If the drug trade was substantial in the past, its dimension was infinitely modest compared with today’s traffic.

At the present time one can see that drug dependency and traffic have become worldwide epidemics of frightening proportions, the USA being the center of it, both in terms of drug consumption (the world’s largest) and in terms of illegal trade and profits.

Cahiers du Tiers Monde magazine, nr. 113, published the following:

“Late this century, drug-traffic turned out to be one of the most important axis between Latin America and the United States with significant implications in strategy and national and collective security. For this reason, treating the problem as a mere police question is a gross simplification which ignores its complex reality. In its true dimension, drug-traffic is an economic, social and political problem of trans-national significance, which unbalances the States and the Latino-American society.” (Cahiers du Tiers Monde, “Drugs and the Parallel Power”, by Manuel Gonzalo C. Alvarez, p.10).

In the following chapters, we will focus on the true and terrifying world dimensions of trafficking today, as well as on the preponderous role played, in this trade of death, by the nation which until recently, was the leader of the West – the United States of America.

The Extent of the American Drug Business Today

To have an idea of how attractive the European drug market is to American “investors”: one gram of gold in Paris costs between 60-70 francs, depending on market fluctuation (August 1990), whereas one gram of cocaine is sold at 1,000 francs, that is 940 francs more per gram of cocaine sold!


Drugs are the Major World Business at Present

According to official numbers collected by Swiss writer jean Ziegler (in Switzerland Washes Whiter):

“Today drug profits are a fantastic market (…) between USD $300 and $500 billion per year. Many famous experts support the second figure, Interpol secretary general, Mr. Kendall, among those.”

Official figures are usually at least five times lower than the real ones. Even though this official index places drugs amongst the major world businesses. Drug profits are equivalent to five times some of the 3rd world country’s debts (Brazil, for example, is being forced to export practically all its products in order to pay its US $110 billion debt’s interest rates). According to Ziegler the half trillion dollars drug profit per year is equivalent to “all western country’s yearly expenses in oil purchases.

And it represents over three times France’s budget which is 150 billion dollars!

“The international drugs trade is an economic activity battled against but also protected (…) it is one of the major world economic activities” (Le Monde Diplomatique, 24/4/1990, article by Christian de Brie, “Who profits from the drug-traffic? Bankers, who are in complicity with drug-traffic.”)

To have an idea of how attractive the drug market is to “investors”: one gram of gold in Paris costs between 60-70 francs, depending on market fluctuation (August 1990), whereas one gram of cocaine is sold at 1,000 francs, that is 940 francs more per gram of cocaine sold!

“Organized crime is only one of the international drug trade’s business “partners” (…) The drug business functions like a three-partner society: the traffickers group, the business group and the political group” (Christian de Brie, art. Cit.)

In practically all countries, bankers are in complicity with this business not only laundering drug money but even giving advice, defending and keeping bank accounts secret; they also provide solicitors and advisors to traffickers; in short, they help drug money to be “clear and respectable”. Everybody knows the remarkable power of influence banks have on modern society’s governments. In many countries they are practically today’s ruling class. In his book Psychoanalysis of Society, Keppe stated that in the past cities were built around churches, after that around castles and today around banks. Christian de Bie in the above mentioned article said that:

“In truth, banks not only don’t avoid drug money but voraciously compete to obtain it (…) In the smallest cities in Bolivia, Peru and Colombia’s cocaine zones there are American, British, German, Swiss and French banks. For what business and for what money other than that of drugs? (…) Amongst the numerous banks involved in the drug laundering service since a long time ago, are some well-known names such as Chase Manhattan, American Express, Louis Dryfus, etc. (a dozen major Swiss banks, more than 20 in Miami.)”

Read chapters “American Drug Multinationals” and “Who is responsible for the drug traffic” in order to be aware of the dimensions of the international drug-traffic business.

The power of traffickers is already larger than that of many States

“Trafficker’s killing power competes with the nations power (…) Let us create against them a protection of the human individual, who is affected on a most intimate level (…) One needs to dare think and say that it is not acceptable to have any commitment to such a network of corruption, with such agents of death” (Francois Miterrand, inaugural address at the Arch of Fraternity, Paris 26/8/1989, Le Monde, 29/8/1989).

“Who does crime pay? Everybody, and that is precisely the problem. How to fight against the running waters, when complicities are all around and corruption is abundant? (Le Monde’s dossier on drugs)

“Nations seem disarmed before the problem, incapable of fatally striking drug-traffic” (Le Monde’s dossier on drugs). (N.B.: In fact there are Nations which are disarmed against drug-traffic. Nevertheless there are others which promote it, and this was not mentioned in that article).

The United States are the world’s major marijuana producer and favors opium, heroin and cocaine production throughout the world.

1.  Opium, heroin and cocaine are produced in the following geographic zones:

1.1  Middle-East: produces opium and heroin. Countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan (Golden Crescent), India, Nepal and Lebanon.

1.2  Southeast Asia: produces opium and heroin. Countries: Burma, Thailand and Laos (Golden Triangle)

1.3  Latin America: produces cocaine. Countries: Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil.

1.4  Mexico: produces 50 tons of opium, converted into 5 tons of heroin.

Most of these productive zones are directly or indirectly controlled by the United States of America, as follows:

Afghanistan, Pakistan

In April 1990, Soviet Life magazine published that: “600 tons of drugs are produced yearly by Afghanistan opposition-controlled zones, with the support of Pakistan and the United States.”

According to that magazine, peasants are encouraged to cultivate opium poppy; an air transportation system, via Pakistan ensures that the product goes to Western European countries and to North America and says that: “armed detachments of the opposition are the ones that transport drugs to Pakistan.”

Afghanistan is responsible for 1/5 of the world production of opium and for half of the world production of heroin.



Studies on the Iran-gate scandal (clandestine arms sale to Iran by Israel and the United States) show that:

a)  those arms were paid for with dollars, “but mainly with drugs (base-morphine and heroine)” (according to Jean Ziegler, above mentioned book, p.151);

b)  the White House had an active part in the operation; even ex-president Ronald Reagan was accused, but alleged not to know what was going on. His National Security Aid, John Poindexter (government’s right arm), was even sentenced, but for only six months in prison. Doubts about the American ex-president still remain.. (according to article “The Reagan Verdict” by Antony Lewis, New York Times / Diario de Noticias, 1/5/1990);

c)  the arms sale money (and that of drugs, of course) was transferred to Central America under the order of North American colonel Oliver North, and others, in order to financially back up gangs of mercenaries against Faribundo Marti Front, in El Salvador, and in order to help with the Nicaraguan “contras” (group opposed to Sandinista government);

d)  “Iran secret arms sale was used to provide equipment to Nicaraguan “contras”, and this made it possible for a significant cocaine traffic between Colombia and the United States to take place, which was done with the logistic support of the North Americans.” (according to Le Monde Diplomatique, 24/4/1990, Christian de brie).

In July 1990, CIA ex-agent, Richard Brancke, stated the following to Italian federal television (RAI):

“Iran arms traffic was the Reagan / Bush political debt with Tehran in exchange for the delay in the release of the American hostages from the American Embassy in Tehran. That delay had cuased Carter’s defeat in the November presidential elections” and also said that “Swedish Prime Minister, Olof Palme, had been killed by the Masonic Lodge P2, supported by CIA, because he was aware of the illegal arms traffic at the time of the Iran-Iraq war.”


Golden Triangle

Burma, Thailand and Laos

The United States and the CIA created “rebel armies” in Laos and Burma and controlled opium and morphine production using the Golden Triangle. Such drugs were the only currency used for the purchase and supply of arms provided by the CIA, whose airplanes transported the drugs back. Such an arrangement is still in use today, supplying nearly half of the world heroin trade (according to Le Monde Diplomatique, 24/4/1990, article by Christian de brie).

N.B.: According to Le Monde dossier on drugs, world heroin production is around 106 tons per year (in official numbers). Given that Afghanistan (in part controlled by the US), produces 50 tons per year, and that the Golden Triangle, under the CIA control, produces 45 tons per year, one concludes  that the United States (that is, the White House, and government agencies) participate directly in the overall heroin production trafficked in the world (including that sold in North America itself).

13 Heavens Note: In 2006, a UN report stated the number at 6,700 tons. So from 50-tons per year in 1988 to 6,700 tons in 2006, the question undoubtedly becomes: “Who’s using all of this stuff?” See more… 


Latin America

According to Le Monde’s above mentioned article, Nicaraguan “contras” organization, organized by the United States of America (CIA and Noriega), made substantial cocaine traffic between Colombia and the United States possible, with the logistic support of American agents. By and large, Latin America’s dictatorial regimes were created by the CIA. For example, in dictatorial times Brazilian generals had secret bank accounts at the (Swiss) Migros Bank where 1 million Swiss Francs, coming from the Brazilian network of drug-traffic, were deposited weekly. Money exchanged at the Migros Bank was deposited weekly at New York’s Banesto Banking Corporation account number 13.277.201 (Jean Ziegler, mentioned book, p.71-72).

General Noriega, who organized the Nicaraguan “contras” and supported the Medellin Cartel in Colombia, has been a CIA agent since 1950 and was made both by Ronald Reagan and by the present American president (Expresso magazine, article “Noriega, the American Lesson”, by Tony Jenkins, 20/1/1990). Bush only had him arrested when the dictator of Panama was no longer of interest to the USA.

2.  Marijuana is produced in the following geographic zones:

2.1  United States of America (major world producer, according to Figaro, 19/5/1990).

2.2  Asia (India, Thailand and Nepal).

2.3  Middle-East (Lebanon, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Yemen).

2.4  Africa (Morocco and Kenya).

As one can see, besides the fact that the United States of America is the major drug producer, those countries used by the North Americans to produce opium and heroin (Thailand, Pakistan, Afghanistan…) “coincidently” are also amongst the world’s marijuana producers (“marijuana is certainly the second or the third Californian cultivation”, according to economics Nobel Prize winner, Milton Friedman, in interview for Le Figaro, 19/5/1990)

How Drug-Traffic Threatens Europe

On March 29, 1990, USA Today newspaper reported the following:

“Traffickers take to Europe what is left from the US cocaine” and state “in order to find new markets, United States drug traffickers are now taking to Europe what is left (…) The quantity of cocaine which comes to the United States exceeds the demand (…) cocaine traffickers have saturated the American market at the price they wanted to sell it, so that now they are forced to take the drug overseas (…) Prices in Western Europe are double those in the United States (…) there is no doubt at all that the European market is indeed opened. Federal agents say they are now seizing more cocaine shipments coming directly from Colombia to Europe – and the number of shipments to Eastern Europe will increase rapidly (…) Now that borders are being eliminated, opportunist traffickers will find open doors, says DEA Frank Shultz in Washington, DC.”


As one can observe, North Americans are “keeping an eye” on Europe, now that their country’s economic decay is reducing the fabulous profits of drug-traffic.

It is necessary for Europe to awaken to this danger, for it is a very serious threat to Europe.

In France, for example, drug consumption more than doubled from 1980 to 1987, according to the inquiry on “Drug Addiction” by the Ministry of Solidarity to Health and Social Protection.

Portugal, specially the Azores, is today a new world drug traffic route according to the news published by the Portuguese media (could it be a coincidence that an American military base is located there?)

“There is a dramatically increasing number of drug victims in Western Europe. The polytoxocomaniac progression, the highly worrisome connection between drug use and AIDS and the Association between traffickers and terrorists is a sad balance reported by UN International Body for Drug Control 1988 Annual report, in that organization’s headquarters in Vienna on December 12” (according to Le Monde dossier on drugs).

The same group responsible for the massive introduction of drugs into the United States of America – which has been trying to do the same in Europe, although not with the same results until now, are now concentrating their total efforts on the European market, which is the last stronghold still capable of resisting such an invasion. We are at the doors of a final conflict. Either the traffickers will destroy the world or we unite in order to save civilization”, says Pacheco. In the book, The Decay of the American People, 1985, Dr. Pacheco wrote the following:

“A New York Times, 27/5/1984 research paper showed that 99 percent of the country’s boarding schools were being affected by cocaine use, besides marijuana. Those children were asked the reason for their behavior. It was found that even their parents and teachers were also addicted. This means 90 percent of at least the population of New York have already had experience or still use drugs. And drugs affect the brains’ functions irreversibly (a scientifically proven fact).”

13 Heavens Note: On a similar note, while not considered an illicit drug, Aspartame (a widespread artificial sweetener) also impairs the brain’s ability to focus, recall short/long-term memory, etc. The question could reasonably be asked if the lessons learned by the CIA and US Army (discussed in previous chapters) have found their way into pharmaceuticals and foods of today. In order to support consumerism, repeat customers are eventually needed. Making something addictive is a quick and easy solution. Therefore, addiction - as the vehicle, ensures whatever effect of mysterious or undisclosed “additives” in medications, foods and beverages, will continue – in the same way shown here with illicit drugs.   

Facts like these, which brought about the openly mentioned decay to the North American civilization, are the ones which 1992’s united new Europe must avoid by all means.

click image to enlarge
American Drug Multinational

- pages 59-69

No comments: