Sunday, January 4, 2009

History of the Gold Rush

The following is an excerpt discussing human's obsession with gold.


I have been asked several times throughout my life what I would change if I had a chance to do it all over again. Maybe I was very lucky or ignorant or possibly even arrogant, but I would change nothing. My childhood days were filled with so much laughter, non-stop fun and adventure, growing up on the gold fields of South Africa, that I cannot imagine having it any other way. For those who have never had the pleasure of visiting the gold fields of the West Rand, south Africa, do not be disappointed, because the fields are not actually filled with gold. The name does however suggest a landscape filled with shiny, glistening mounds of gold as far as the eye can see. All you have to do is reach out and take it. On the contrary, the West Rand is a rather flat grassland, full of mielie (maize) fields, whirlwinds, dust, afternoon thunderstorms and sinkholes. There is a small range of hills that seems to run all the way from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom for about 150 kilometers. As you travel this two-hour stretch of road, you will come across your typical mining settlements, which have between 200 to 5000 residents. They have great names like Zuurebom, Westonaria, Randfontein, Venterspost, Waterpan, Hills Haven, Libanon, Fochville, and the famous Carletonville. The one common feature that links them all together is the array of mine shafts. Small ones, giant ones, concrete onces and steel ones. Sink holes are a fascinating phenomenon in thee parts, mainly as a result of man's hunger for gold. As the mining activity underground drains the water, it allows the dolomite rock formations to become dry and brittle. With time and pressure, they eventually cave in and cause sinkholes on the surface with devastating effects to humans. These sinkholes can range from a few meters across to a kilometer across and their depth normally varies from hole to hole. The Venterspost Golf Course, where I mastered my envious handicap of 22, was built around such a sinkhole featuring some daunting drives that force you to clear the hole instead of water. On many occasions we would be forced to venture down into the giant sinkhole in search of lost balls. More often than not it was worth the trek, as the booty provided us with golfing riches every 12-year old could only dream of... Balls for Africa.

Everything on the West Rand revolved around gold which had a knock-on effect into every possible industry imaginable. The villages were, and are still today designed to provide the families of mine workers with everything they need to keep them occupied. This obviously applied only to the white miners, while the black migrant labor-force was crammed into men's hostels that developed very disturbing socio-economic problems with time. But for the fortunate ones, it was swimming, golf, tennis, squash, bowls, badminton, jukskei, club house activity and constant social events. This was like paradise for any growing child. What more did we need? Every mining home had the spoils of their underground toil on display, normally consisting of a range of gold ore rocks, clearly showing the rich sediment arteries of gold and other metals. These rocks would inevitably be above the fireplace, in the middle of the table holding down the crochet cloth or even converted into a homemade ashtray. It's incredible to think that as much as 60% of the modern world's gold came from this area which stretches about 200 kilometers in diameter and also includes large parts of the Free State. While this geographic location may not have been terribly relevant to me and all the other gold miners in the '70s, it would certainly start to raise many crucial questions in my mind by the mid '90s, when it started to become clear that the so-called 'Cradle of Humankind' was located right here in southern Africa. Is it not curious that it was here in southern Africa where the Sumerian tablets claim that most of the original gold mining activity took place, shortly after the Anunnaki first arrived on Earth some 450,000 years ago? And according to the tablets, it is also here at the southern tip of Africa where the newly created species was put to work some 200,000 years later when the 'Adamu' was first created. Should we be surprised that these amazing historic facts all seem to tie up? Yes we should, because we know by now that history has taught us nothing, so once again we look at these incredible coincidences and we refuse to believe what they are telling us.

But back on the West Rand in 1970, to the hundreds of thousands of people growing up in this mining industry, it was all they knew, and it was all they needed. To the point that I personally always felt sorry for the kids in the city. I could never understand what all the 'other people' were doing living in cities and other parts of the country. What could be more important than gold? What else was there? Our lives were so consumed by the activities surrounding the gold mining industry, it was truly difficult to imagine a life other than that. After all, our fathers were the guys responsible for getting the shiny metal out of the ground – the bars of gold which were the envy of the whole world. I distinctly remember the sadness that surrounded underground rock falls resulting in deaths of people you knew very well. Like my friend's father who died underground in pursuit of gold, or people swallowed up by sinkholes while playing tennis on a Sunday morning. But while there were regular tragedies, we somehow justified it and believed that it was all okay, because we were part of the big plan to provide the world with gold. Life simply carried on and every day more trucks filled with gold would leave our backyard to be delivered to someone, somewhere in the distant corners of the world.

Looking back at this scenario some 30 years later, there seems to be very little difference between my father's underground toil for the shiny yellow metal, and the original primitive miners who worked the gold mines at the dawn of humanity. They both came into this world with a finite number of years to live, performed their duty, and made some invisible god richer. The similarity between the human slave species at the dawn of humanity and the modern mine worker is quite startling. If we examine the Sumerian texts and see how the new 'primitive worker' was treated by his 'gods' while working the mines, performing the hard labor for his masters while being provided with everything they needed in the Garden of Eden, we realize that nothing much has changed in thousands of years.

The primitive workers must have also wondered where all this shiny metal was going to. It would be whisked away by the gods never to be seen again. Why was it so important to the gods? What made this yellow metal so sought after? Why were the workers not allowed to keep any of it... or own it? Why were they punished so severely if they kept any of it? Why was so much effort put into its recovery? Where did it all disappear to? Who was using it... and for what? But these questions were probably never answered in ancient times. While we may think differently today, do we really know where all the gold goes to? And who actually ends up using it for what purpose? We think we know... we have all the scientific answers and the economic indicators thrown at us daily providing us with a warped sense of confidence because the 'gold market is stable'. Explanations of what happened to all the precious metals on Earth fills the pages of economic dailies, but I still suspect that there is much more to the story of gold which is not known nor understood by the well informed human race in the 21st century. It feels as if there is a greater monster somewhere in the sky consuming much of the precious metal spoils from Earth.

Why are we so obsessed with gold? What caused this sudden prehistoric obsession? Why was it gold and not some other precious metal? Why is it that we can trance this obsession all the way back to the cradle of humankind? The sudden emergence of civilization some 11,000 BC went hand in hand with agriculture, structured communities and domestication of animals by the new 'thinking man'. There seems to be no sensible explanation for this. Anthropologists are perplexed by man's virtual disappearance or slow regression before the great flood of some 13,000 years ago, until they suddenly re-emerged with a new vigor, and as if out of nowhere, civilization emerged in the Near East. It was from there that all these suddenly acquired skills spread around the world. These are now accepted statistics by most scholars. They had hardly appeared from the dregs of the flood, and already they had gold, and their fascination with the pale metal was as visible as it is today.

One other thing which however still perplexes historians, is the speed at which a wide variety of new agricultural produce kept coming out of the Near East, starting from around 8000 BC or even earlier. It was as if the Near east had become some kind of a botanical incubator, constantly producing newly domesticated plant species. How was it possible that primitive man, who was still living in caves, suddenly gained such advanced knowledge? This time has been described as the end of the Palaeolithic period or Old Stone Age, and the beginning of the Middle Stone Age or Mesolithic period. It means that man was still completely consumed by stone in all his day-to-day activity. His dwelling was made from stone, villages wee protected by stone walls, his tools were made from stone, he covered his dead with stones and so on. So who was holding his hand, dragging him towards civilization, showing him the way, imparting knowledge as quickly as man could absorb it? There seems to be a clear link between Noah's landing on fertile land, planting the first vines and the emergence of civilization in the Near East. It is very curious that this primitive man, while emerging from Stone Age, already possessed advanced knowledge of refining and processing gold, even for thousands of years leading up to this point.

Was the same hand that helped man with agriculture behind his gold mining exploits? It certainly seems like a plausible explanation. Or do you still believe that primitive man just slowly evolved into knowing all about this advanced technology? I could possibly buy the alluvial gold theory, because it is reasonably easy to find it in rivers, sieve the mud, retrieve the gold and polish it. Alluvial gold nuggets very from very small to reasonably large and often shine in the water, which would have attracted the attention of many a passer-by. But the problem is that many of the prehistoric mining sites were actually ore installations. This complicates things a bit. Even the subtle difference in the appearance of gold in its alluvial state, compared to the way it looks in ore sediments, takes a trained eye to recognize, I simply cannot imagine primitive man walking along some 12,000 years ago, stubbing his toe on a rock, which led to the inadvertent discovery of ore gold mining. He saw that the rock was different from others. On closer inspection he identified gold sediments in the rock. He instinctively knew that if he crushed the rock he could extract gold from it. But first he had to go through the following process:

“Sodium cyanide solution is allowed to leach through a pile of finely-ground rock that has proven to contain gold and silver, and is then collected as gold cyanide and silver cyanide solution. Zinc is added to the solution, precipitation out zinc, silver and gold metals. The zinc is removed with sulphuric acid, leaving a silver and gold amalgam that may be further processed into the individual metals. The cyanide technique is very simple and straightforward to apply, and popular in areas where min tailings may contain surprisingly large quantities of valuable metals. There can be significant environmental damage caused by the use of this technique due to the high toxicity presented by the cyanide itself.” - Wikipedia

I have a real problem believing that primitive man engaged in this process on his own accord long before he even knew about agriculture and other basic aspects of civilization. The only known reference to this kind of knowledge exists in the Sumerian tablets. Do we take them seriously or do we discard the information captured on these tablets? Many historians have chose to discard this knowledge and by doing so have denied humankind a true glimpse at the inexplicable behavior of ancient humans. Why has there been this fanatical obsession with gold since the earliest days of humanity? Why is this obsession continuing today? When did man first decide that gold made a great necklace and started adorning himself with the shiny metal? What were early man's real reasons or motivations? Many people believe the answer is simple, they will tell you that it is the rarity of gold that makes it so desirable. But it somehow does not answer the question satisfactorily. Why did primitive man need gold in the first place when there were so many other shinier objects to adorn himself with? What made gold so rare and more desirable than all the other worldly shiny stones and metals? Besides the alluvial gold which may have been exhausted very quickly, who taught man to extract metal from ore?

The history of gold is a fascinating tale. As far back as we can go, humans have always been obsessed with it. The gold rush of the 1850s; the Vatican; the Spanish Conquistadors; the Vikings of the Dark Ages; the Romans; the Greeks; the Egyptians; the Mayas; Incas; Olmecs; Toltecs; the Mesopotamians; Akkadians; Sumerians and the mysterious Anunnaki were all obsessed with gold. Gold has been the obsession of kings forever. It was also the chosen item of sacrifice by 'gods' and many of the other ancient gods when demanding offerings from their human subjects. It has been a symbol of wealth and success in most religions and the Old Testament is filled with references to gold in a multitude of situations. This includes the strict instructions from god to Moses, about the dimensions of the Ark of the Covenant and the materials that were to be used in its construction. The following instructions come directly from Exodus 37:

  • They are to make an Ark of acacia wood, 45 inches long, 27 inches wide, and 27 inches high.

  • Overlay it with pure gold; overlay it both inside and out. Also make a gold molding all around it.

  • Cast four gold rings for it and place (them) on its four feet; two rings on one side and two rings on the other side.

  • Make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold.

  • Insert the poles into the rings on the sides of the Ark in order to carry the Ark with them.

  • The poles are to remain in the rings of the Ark; they must not be removed from it.

  • Put (tablets of the) testimony that I will give you into the Ark.

  • Make a mercy seat of pure gold, 45 inches long and 27 inches wide.

  • Make two cherubim of gold; make them of hammered work at the two ends of the mercy seat.

  • Make one cherub at the end and one cherub at the other end. Make the cherubim of once piece with the mercy seat at its two ends.

  • The cherubim are to have wings spread out above, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and are to face one another. The faces of the cherubim should be toward the mercy seat.

  • Set the mercy seat on top of the Ark and put the testimony that I will give you into the Ark.

  • I will meet with you there above the mercy seat, between the two cherubim that are over the Ark of the testimony; I will speak with you from there about all that I command you regarding the Israelites.

These are pretty detailed instructions. If I had to receive a plan like that today, I would be quite curious to know why the sizes and materials had to be so specific, if all that this fancy 'chest' was supposedly for was to carry some valuables from Johannesburg to Bloemfontein. Is it possible that instead of just being a container fro the future commandments, the Ark was also some kind of communication device? After all god said to Moses, “I will meet with you there above the mercy seat, between the two cherubim that are over the Ark of the Testimony; I will speak with you from there about all that I command you regarding the Israelites.” Surely the all-powerful-god could speak to Moses anywhere? Rather than confining him to a designated seat with his head between suspicious 'cherubim'! Were the extended 'poles' not just for carrying the devices, but also antennae to receive transmitted messages? Were the 'cherubim' some sort of speaker system between which Moses had to sit to hear god's message? It is all very curious and highly suspicious once you remove the religious emotion from it. The historic reality is that gold has played a very unusual role in the entire history of humankind, often crossing the line to become religious practice or rituals. Why would god have such an insatiable appetite for gold? Before we speculate any further about the possible reasons surrounding such a divine hunger for gold, let us first take a look at the metal and what the real fuss is all about. What makes this metal so special?

Gold is a remarkable metal with an unparalleled combination of chemical and physical properties, which make it invaluable in a wide range of everyday applications essential to our modern life. Many thousands of everyday applications require gold to ensure a smooth performance for long periods. Gold is virtually indestructible and is completely recyclable and immune to the effects of air, water, and oxygen. Gold will not tarnish, rust or corrode. These properties make gold a vital component in many medical, industrial, and electrical applications.

Gold is the most non-reactive of all metals. It never reacts with oxygen, that is why it will not rust or tarnish. The golden mask in the tomb of Tutankhamen looked as brilliant when it was unearthed in 1922 as when it was entombed in 1352 BC. Gold is almost the most electrically conductive of all metals and is able to convey even a tiny electrical current in temperatures varying from -55 degrees Celsius to +200 degrees Celsius. It is therefore a vital component in commuters and telecommunication equipment. It is the most ductile of all metals, allowing it to be drawn out into tiny wires or threads kilometers long, it can be shaped and extended into extraordinarily thin sheets. One ounce of gold can be hammered into a 12-meter-square sheet. Gold is the most reflective material of infrared energy. This means that high purity gold reflects up to 99% of infrared rays. This makes gold ideal for heat and radiation reflection for astronauts and fire fighters. But at the same time, gold is also an excellent conductor of thermal energy or heat. It is used to transfer heat away from delicate instruments. For this reason, a 35% gold alloy is used in the main engine nozzle of the Space Shuttle, where temperatures can reach 3300 degrees Celsius.

So what did 'god' have up his sleeve when he gave Moses such precise instructions? Did someone capture all those instructions in writing or were some of the more intricate details omitted simply because the writer could not really understand the finer details? Why were the ancient 'gods' and not only humans so obsessed with gold? When you start weighing up all the little coincidences, and you pat attention to the Sumerians, they begin to make a lot of sense. Most people still carry the naive view that man simply stumbled upon gold by accident, it became a tradable commodity admired by kings, eventually becoming the global currency driving stock markets up and down. I just cannot buy this simplistic view which is largely based on our current perception of the metal in the 21st century. The history of gold mining has very sketchy roots which were as murky as the rest of ancient human history. The oldest tangible writing documentation we have available to us from very ancient history, are the Sumerian clay tablets and seals, but these seem to be rejected by so many resistant scholars. The last decade however, has seen a giant and radical swing towards accrediting these tablet with some merit. As more and more tablets have been verified and translated, mavericks like Zecharia Sitchin have received more serious acclaim, and the tablets started to make a real impact on the 'holy grail' of science with their outlandish theories on our ancient ancestors and creators. So if we accept the contents of the Sumerian tablets, we will have to accept the fact that gold mining goes back several hundred thousand years, long before any of us could fathom. But as we will see, it all fits perfectly into the Great Human Puzzle and provides us with riveting information to dispel all the rubbish which we have been indoctrinated with over hundreds of years. You will have to be brave to face the real truth, because it is not what the global establishments would like you to believe. This leaves me personally with only one conclusion. The ancient 'gods' who populated the world and enslaved humankind may still be active among us in ways which we cannot comprehend, not allowing knowledge to spread, keeping their firm grip through religious oppression over their 'slave species.'

There are very clear references in the Sumerian tablets to the introduction of kingships by the 'gods', the role of high priests as the carriers of the 'gods' instructions to their people, and the ongoing mining activities in search of the precious metal that brought the Anunnaki to Earth in the first place. The priests and kings were often summonsed to a meeting with 'god' during which they would receive very specific instructions to convey to their people. This was a common event in the Old Testament, with people like Abraham and Moses, being just two of the more famous examples of how god interacted with man, giving him explicit instructions. Why is this not happening today? Or have we just become too wise for the conniving 'gods' of biblical times? In the 'Story of Humankind' chapter we will cover in great detail the creation of the 'Adamu' and the 'primitive slave worker' who had to toil in the mines of southern Africa digging for gold, for their gods. But I trust that I should set the scene in order to explain some of the fundamentals derived from thousands of Sumerian tablets which form the foundation of the claims I make in this chapter.

The slow and steady translation of Sumerian tablets gives us a peak into ancient human history for the very first time and turns everything we have been taught on its head. They give an extended written account of the entire history of the rise of civilizations on Earth, but it is not what most would expect. And yet when you evaluate all the stuff compiled in this book, it will hopefully make as much sense to you as it does to me. Here is a short outline of the complex story of humankind, as told in the Sumerian tablets, merely to serve as a guide to explain some statements in this chapter.

The Anunnaki were astronauts and explorers who settled on Earth some 443,000 years ago under the command of Anu, hence the Anu-naki. His two sons Enlil and Enki were given the control of their new space base. They came in search of gold to help mend their planet Nibiru's failing ozone layer and atmosphere. Over time they sent as many as 600 explorers and workers to Earth, set up a multitude of mining operations in southern Africa and a space command center in the Near East at Eridu, the oldest settlement on Earth. After some time and complains from those Anunnaki who had to toil in the mines, they created a clone, which was a mixture of their DNA with that of the Homo erectus creature that lived on Earth. They called this first 'primitive worker' Adamu and after some time they created a female partner for him to procreate, instead of being carried by surrogate Anunnaki females. “Let us create a Lulu, a primitive worker, the hardship work to take over... By the mark of our essence to fashion him.” (from Sumerian tablets)

The new slave species became highly sought after by the Anunnaki in the Near East and so began to toil there as well, away from his African cradle. The Anunnaki also had a base established on Mars from where they could send larger shipments because of the lower gravity. This was before the cosmic events that caused the great flood on Earth and also caused Mars to lose its atmosphere. Those who lived on Mars were called Igigi, but the cosmic events forced the Igigi to desert the planet and return to Earth. The sons of the Anunnaki and the Igigi were referred to as the Nefilim in the book of Genesis and other literature. 'Those who decided to Earth from heaven'. Even Genesis tells us about these Nefilim who came to Earth and 'saw that the daughters of man were beautiful and had children with them'. This created a whole new species of humans called the Aryans who lived separately from the rest and influenced future civilizations to a great extent. They were followers of Marduk, who we will hear a lot more of later. All these activities happened for very sound reasons. The planet Nibiru is on a 3600 year orbit around the Sun, just like the orbit of many comets. On one of its approaches to the Sun, Nibiru came unusually close to Earth and Mars, causing great geological upheavals that resulted in the Great Flood some 13,000 years ago. At the same time the presence of Nibiru also caused Mars' atmosphere to be 'sucked away'. The Anunnaki saw this approaching global catastrophe as an opportunity to wipe out the slave species that they created and which had grown to very large numbers by then. The slave species had become a big problem that was not going away. They needed constant supervision, care and feeding like little helpless children. They were becoming unruly and some even began to develop thoughts of independence, breaking the bonds of labor and slavery in the mines. But the biggest problem for Enlil was that some of the Nefilim were having children with the human females, creating a whole new sub-species and exacerbating the problem. At the original point of creation of the 'Adamu' there was much disagreement between the two commanding brothers. Enlil was completely opposed to the creation of a new species and now had the perfect opportunity by allowing a natural disaster to eliminate the human problem. But Enki who was the creator of humankind, told some of his own offspring to save themselves in a submersible boat. The rest is part of human history. But the close proximity of Earth to Nibiru, had a devastating effect on the large planet Nibiru as well, once again disturbing its atmosphere. Just when the Anunnaki thought they had saved their planet Nibiru and were going home, the gold mining had to resume. As fate would have it, they were grateful that some humans survived. But this time they would give them knowledge and teach them all they needed to know about civilization and survival, while they slowly began to be absorbed into the extended family of gods. The gods divided the world into a number of regions, allocation each region to one of the more senior Anunnaki children on Earth. Disagreements and greed began to consume the ruling gods, with one of them called Marduk/Ra/Amun, proclaiming himself to be the 'one god above all'. He expanded his influence over the world against the will of the rest of the Anunnaki gods, causing a standoff. Marduk seems to be the 'one god' of the Old Testament who began to prohibit the worship of the other gods by humans. He was also referred to as the 'god of vengeance' who about 2500 years BC began to force humans everywhere to accept him as the only god. He promised reward and sympathy to those who obeyed him and great punishment to those who did not. He also began to promise immortality to his followers, the Pharaohs being the major and first benefactors of his promises. It is for these reasons that we see the unusual obsession with the afterlife among the Egyptian kings. The rest of the Anunnaki decided they had to act decisively and with extreme force against Marduk. This was the time that involved Sodom and Gomorrah in the Bible. The destruction was violent and widespread, with dire consequences. But somehow, Marduk escaped the onslaught, and the events only made him more feared and worshiped by the surviving humans. Ans so his related extended family in northern Mesopotamia, the Aryans, invaded the lands to the east and Europe to the west, conquering humans everywhere and imposing their Aryan supremacy on them. And such is the remaining status quo in the world today.

I must tell you that I am not making any of this up in a moment of fictional insanity. As ridiculous as these tales may sound, they are no more ridiculous than what is happening in the world today. But you can be the judge of the evidence presented, and you can decide whether you want to remain a slave species, or whether you want to begin exploring the new options presented to us as we unearth more and more prehistoric artifacts which tell s a completely different story about our human ancestry to the one we have all been told.

Let us go back to the obsession with gold. The 'slave species' were toiling in the mines oblivious of their exact place in the greater scheme of things. They knew what this was the only thing required of them. They lived in compounds not dissimilar to those used on South African mines even today. Everything was provided fro the slaves, but they had no choice, no freedom other than toiling in mines.

They were born into mining slavery and they died as slaves on the mines. But there must have been slaves who rebelled and escaped into the dense African bush, to form small family units, learning to survive as hunter gatherers. The Khoi-San people were most likely some of those. There came a time when some slaves were allowed to leave the mine compounds and live in the African wild, probably when they became old and fragile, not able to do the hard labor they were intended for. These groups of early humans formed small units and tribes, developing their own distant African cultures which were filled with mythological gods and tales that are difficult for historians to understand. But when seen from this new perspective it makes perfect sense why African mythology and their religions are so different from the rest of the world. Because it was here in Africa where the first humans were created, they lived and saved in isolation from the other emerging human communities, and they established their own unique cultures, highly influenced by their master 'gods'. There was very little contact between these early humans in Africa and the rest of the world, where interbreeding was taking place between humans and the offspring of the Anunnaki, giving rise to the Aryans of the north. It is possible that there may be even have been a mutiny by the 'slave species' against their enslavement, after some 100,000 years of toiling.

After the mutiny of the slave species, when many were allowed to leave their mining compounds, the mining continued while many of the slaves tried to live in newly-formed communities and survive without the help of their gods. Could this relationship between the slaves and Anunnaki be echoed in the religious structures of today? Could the Anunnaki still be holding a firm grip on human actively especially around the production of gold in modern times? Many of the secrete societies throughout history have been traced way back to the origin of humanity and the so-called 'Brotherhood of the Snake'. And the conspiracy theories keep coming. The great thing about conspiracy theories is that that's exactly what they remain. But the fact that our human origin is in question; that the role of gold in the world has dubious origins; the questionable role which the church and its priests have played in the hording of gold and wealth, all point to possible conspiracies so deep that there may be more to them than meets the sober mind. Just to demonstrate how confused historians are about the origins of gold and its possible meaning to early humans, here are some random extracts of what has been said about the origins of gold:

“Gold was probably the first metal known to the early hominids that, on finding it as nuggets and spangles in the soils and stream sands, were undoubtedly attracted by its intrinsic beauty, great malleability, and virtual indestructibility.”

I find this statement utterly ridiculous. Why would a soft metal have any value to primitive hominid, ape-like creatures, when their preoccupation was with survival, food and shelter? But the Anunnaki needed gold and they needed a worker to get the gold from the ground.

“During the stone ages the metal appears to have taken on a sacred quality because of its enduring character and immortality, being worn initially probably as amulets and later fashioned into religious objects and idols.”

All very well, but why would gold, rather than any of the other metals or precious stones take on such an importance? There is no justifiable reason for such behavior by primitive early humans, unless they were imitating someone, placing value on the metal for some reason.

“By the time of the early Indus, Sumerian, and Egyptian civilizations (3000-2000 BC) gold had not only retained its sacred quality but had become the symbol of wealth and social rank.”

Exactly! By this time humans were given civilization by their gods and gold was established as the 'property of the gods'. This is very well documented by the Conquistadors in Mesoamerica. They were repeatedly told by the natives that all the gold 'belonged to the gods'. In biblical times god would reward his obedient human followers in various ways. Gold was one of those rewards, because it was revered by humans, as a divine metal. Any human who was allowed to keep gold or given gold by the gods as a form of reward, was admired by everyone. They would be in possession of something 'godly' and 'divine', which was a huge social privilege, increasing the desire and demand for gold.

“Homer (circa 1000 BC) writes in the Iliad and Odyssey, the epic poems of ancient Greece, describes gold repeatedly both as a sign of wealth among mortals and as a symbol of splendor among the immortals.”

There we have it. Homer had similar views on the issue with gold. Why did he know these things, which our modern intellectuals have reduced to mythological mumbo-jumbo not to be taken seriously? The following statement immediately supports my disillusion with modern teachers of human history. This seems to be a commonly accepted new among scholars, which I find extremely arrogant, short-sighted and outright ignorant. They should read more, open their eyes and stop filling the minds of our children with half-truths and utter rubbish, which is mostly regurgitated historical rhetoric not worthy of the paper it is written on.

“Early references to the first discovery of gold are essentially legendary or mythical. The Chronicum Alexandrinum (AD 628) ascribes its discovery of gold to Mercury, the Roman god of merchandise and merchants, the son of Jupiter,or to Pisus. Similar legends and myths concerning the initial discovery of gold are referred to in the ancient literature of the Hindus (the Vedas) as well as in that of the ancient Chinese and other peoples.”

What more do we need in the form of support for what we read in the Sumerian tablets? Obviously Alexander's historians knew more than our historians do today, and they must have been familiar with the extensive library at Alexandria with its millions of books, lost to our modern historians. They did not hesitate calling the deities 'gods' while today's historians very quickly reduce them to 'mythological' figures.

Here is a little more of what history sources have to say about gold: “The discovery of the element we call gold is lost in antiquity.” This is not true. Here is an extract from a Sumerian tablet translated by Zecharia Sitchin: “Let gold from the waters be obtained, let it for salvation on Nibiru be tested.”

This was the first every reference to gold in our ancient prehistory. Words spoken by Anu, the king of Nibiru, before they dispatched the Anunnaki to Earth to retrieve the gold. Do we just ignore these scripts and regard them as nonsense? Why would prehistoric men be so obsessed with gold that they wrote such elaborate stories about the metal? I contest that it would have been relevant, only if gold played a crucial role in their survival, and so it did. It was the main reason and the only reason why the Anunnaki were on Earth, and the only reason humankind was created.

“The principal source of gold in primitive times was undoubtedly stream placers, although there is considerable evidence in certain gold belts in Egypt, India and other places. The Eluvial and alluvial placers were worked in the crudest manner by panning or the simplest form of sluicing. Exposed parts of friable veins were simply dug out, trenched, or pitted with the crudest of tools, stone hammers, antler picks, bone and wooden shovels. Only rarely were simple shafts, and drifts attempted and then only in the soft rocks of the zone of oxidation. Fire-setting was probably employed by ancient Egyptians, Semites, Indians, and others to break up the hard quartz veins.”

Why would early humans want to break up gold-bearing rock, if they did not know how to extract gold from ore? They must have known the procedure otherwise they would not even have recognized gold deposits in ore. And we have evidence that they did use fire to break up the ore, so they must have known the rest of the complex procedure, including smelting at above 700 degrees Celsius. But why be so surprise, the Sumerian tablets tell us exactly how they went about obtaining gold from ore and how they smelted it. “How a new metal from stones was extracted … to a place of melting and refining metals...” the gold was taken.

Throughout the history of humankind, where there was evidence of gold, new settlements erupted, bringing prosperity to some and desperation to others. In fact, it seems that if there was no evidence of gold from the earliest days of antiquity, civilization would only show signs of development much later. All the earliest human settlements seem to go hand-in-hand with gold.

“Both small and large deposits that showed free gold visibly or in the pan were worked by slaves, convicts, and prisoners of war who were assigned by those in authority to the gold placers and mines.”

The term 'mine' is very relevant here, as most mine shafts are dug for the purpose of ore mining. And why would they have dug min shafts like the ones in southern Africa 50,000 years ago and more, if they had no knowledge of ore mining?

“Early references to gold mining appear in ancient Egyptian codes, on stelae, in pictograms and inscriptions in the toms of the Pharaohs. The most ancient geological map known, is from about the time of Seti I (circa 1320 BC). It shows roads, miners' houses, gold mines, quarries, auriferous mountains, and so on. The ancient Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian civilizations utilized gold extensively, but their sources of the precious metal are relatively uncertain.”

This is not true! The clay tablets give us many references to gold, outlining the mining operations, processing, smelting, and usage. But the historians who write such tripe about the history of gold are probably the same people who give the Egyptians credit for mining gold, but in the same sentence discredit that which the Egyptians held so dear... their gods... who gave them all the knowledge and wisdom, including that of mining for gold.

“References to gold and gold mining are numerous in the Old Testament of the Hebrew. Six sources of gold are mentioned in the Old Testament. They are Havilah, Ophir, Sheba, Midian, Uphaz, and Parvaim. The exact locations of all six have given rise to much speculation. Some authorities claim that all six sources are Arabian; others have suggested locations much farther a field.”

If only they would pay attention to those mystical ancient scriptures left behind for us to assimilate. But unfortunately those had been classified as mythology, so no sober historian could possibly admit that such fiction had influenced their professional opinion. There are view clear and detailed references to southern Africa or the “Abzu” as the place where the first 'primitive worker' was put to work to mine the gold, and it also happens to be the Cradle of Humankind. Is this all not a little too coincidental?

There has been much speculation as to the location of Ophir, the fabulously rich land, filled with gold from which King Solomon's navy brought more than 34 metric tons of the metal to his kingdom. Kings 10:22 in the Old Testament mentions cargoes of sandalwood trees, precious stones, ivory, apes, and peacocks, suggesting the circumnavigation of Africa. Various references to Tarshish suggest that the gold may have come from Tharsis, a mining town in Spain.

Other favorite spots are East Africa and southern Africa, principally Zimbabwe, especially the ruins of Great Zimbabwe. The whole layout, design of the main residence, staff quarters, the art of building a stone structure without mortar, would have made a perfect master's residence for the 'god' Enki in the 'Abzu', as the clay tablets call it. Could this have been the head office of King Solomon's mines? Who occupied it thousands of years after Enki “built his place in the Abzu”. There is no shortage of mines in southern Africa and over the past 200 years of explorations over 500 ruins have been discovered in what was called the land of Monomotapa. This ancient land stretched from the coast of Mozambique, inland and included modern-day Zimbabwe. Various authorities such as Bruce, Huet, Quartremere and Guillain, as well as the great majority of later writers on the Zimbabwe ruins, favor the claims that Monomotapa (Zimbabwe) was the Ophir of scripture. There is also a clear distinction between a much 'older' Great Zimbabwe and all the newer structures which were built in much later times. Could this be a repetition of the Pyramid symptom? The original structures were built by the prehistoric Anunnaki under leadership of Enki, as his home in the Abzu (southern Africa mining region). Thousands of years later, just as in the case of the pyramids, kings of the biblical times, Phoenicians and Himyarites built their own new structures, which do not quite meet the style and quality of the original? In the 'Adapted Excerpts' from The Ancient ruins of Rhodesia by R.N. Hall and W.G Neal, 1904, we read about a “first or older” Zimbabwe and a more recent one. The scholars write that 'massive structures which, while following generally the first Zimbabwe type, have been built in three or more high-terraced tiers rising to the summit of the hills, surrounding them, and sometimes completely covering them.” They tell us that “this 'wedding cake' feature, as it has been termed, is absent in all Zimbabwe ruins built in the first period. Yet all these later Zimbabwe ruins present all the evidence of having been erected by nature-worshipers, and contain the orientated temple “open to heaven,” the sacred circle, the conical towers “the high places, the monoliths, and every evidence of Phallic worship. This class of Zimbabwe is represented, among many others, by Dhlo-dhlo, Regina, Meteme, and Khami people.

The Phoenician connection to the ruins is striking. The monuments, stone carvings and statues found in Zimbabwe are identical in style to those which are predominant in Sardinia and other ancient Near Eastern cultures, including the worship of the god Baal. Explorers Neal and Hall were leading this drive at the turn of the century. They continue explaining that there is a “marvelous similarity” between these later Zimbabwes and many of the three thousand nauraghes, or terraced fortresses, which cover the island of Sardinia. “In both the Rhodesian and Sardinian erections evidences of nature-worship are abundant.” The age of the Sardinian tauraghes goes back to the Bronze Age, around 3500 – 1500 BC, and scholars like Geyard write: “I have no hesitation in considering the numerous round edifices of Sardinia, which are known under the name of nauraghes, as monuments of the worship of Baal.” The Zimbabwean ruins of the latter period resemble such monuments to the god Baal, who was worshiped between 2500 – 200 BC all over the Near East and Egypt. This gives us a clear link between the advanced civilizations of the north and the distant lands of gold in the south, referred to as Ophir during biblical times.

This is an incredible breakthrough. There is constant reference to the 'First Zimbabwe' and 'Latter Zimbabwe' which can be distinguished by their architecture and worshiping of gods. Not only do we have strong evidence to support that king Solomon's mines were indeed located in southern Africa, but suddenly we have tangible evidence that there were two distinct civilizations in Zimbabwe, separated by thousands of years. The more recent our 'Later Zimbabwe' was active between 2000 – 200 BC. They built their shrines and dwellings the same way as their brothers up north in the Near East, praying to the same god Baal; and another, much older prehistoric civilization referred to by scholars as 'First Zimbabwe'. Those from prehistory date back to over 50,000 years as shown by archaeologist Peter Beaumont with his discovery of ancient mines in Swaziland, Southern Africa. But the Sumerian tablets tell us that these African mines date back as far as 200,000 years. Too incredible to digest? There is now a visible line connecting ancient mythology with more recent history, finding a natural meeting place. The issue of the 'shrines and temples' is crucial here. While the 'latter' biblical civilizations in Ophir (Zimbabwe) were worshiping their gods, the 'First Zimbabwean' cultures had no need or knowledge about worshiping any gods. It was the original Anunnaki who created the mines with their new slave species as the first ever gold miners on Earth. They had no need for temples and worshiping, because that kind of ritual had only been introduced to humankind around 4000 – 6000 BC, some 190,000 years later. But then came the kings and mariners of the north around 2500 BC and they built their dwellings as lesser copies of the original Anunnaki structures, and immediately plonked their shrines for worshiping right next door. After all, they would not want to upset the 'god of vengeance' otherwise they would have been punished. There are many other curious similarities like names of rivers and places that also add to the Great Zimbabwe theory.

Ancient navigational plans of Phoenician King Necho some 610 BC, setting out from the Red Sea to the south-eastern coast of Africa or Monomotapa, is just one indication that the land of Ophir was actually in this part of the world. But the support for these theories has been growing for decades and the evidence seems to be irrefutable. There was really no other part of the world which could have provided King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba with so much gold during those days of history. While many of the ancient mines in Monomotapa may have been filled with soil and mud during the Great Flood, some have survived to tell the tale of prehistoric mining in the cradle of humankind.

Other suggestions for the site of King Solomon's mines are southern Turkey in the Taurus Mountains, northwest Saudi Arabia and possibly the Eldorado of the Hebrews. Nubia, in the Sudan, was a great source of gold for the Egyptians. It just so happens that 'Nub' as in Nubia, means gold in ancient Egyptian. During the time of Queen Hatshepsut (1503 – 1482 BC) and later, the Egyptian navy brought great amounts of gold and stibnite from the areas in Punt to Egypt. The two other sources of gold mentioned in the Old Testament were Uphaz (Jeremiah 10:9 & Daniel 10:5) and Parvaim (II Chronicals 3:6). Where could those places have possibly been? So far historians have not been able to identify any of the references.

While the talk of gold is every present in the Old Testament, references to geological sites of gold and silver are relatively rare. In the book of Job it states: “Surely there is a vein for the silver, and a place for gold where they find it.” (Job 28:1) Who are “they” he mentions? Why would they be so obsessed with gold?

Southern India has long been known for its golden riches, where in ancient times loads of gold was mined. In his Bibliotheca Historica of the 1st century BC, Diodonus Siculus wrote that in India “the earth contains rich underground veins of many kinds, including many of silver and gold...” Once again, it points to knowledge of ore mining and not just the commonly accepted alluvial methods.

In China, gold was mined and utilized during the earliest of times, including the Shang civilizations (1800 – 1027 BC) of the Huang-Ho River. Gold mining was probably introduced into Korea around 1122 BC by the followers of Ki-ja, who migrated from China. From Korea, the various methods of mining for gold were taken to Japan, probably as early as 660 BC (Bromehead, 1942).

“Gold was known to the early Amerindians, but the metal was not held in high regard in the period... Later, during the first centuries of the Christian era, gold assumed much greater importance in the Olmec, Zapotec, Mayan, Aztec, and other civilizations of Mexico and Mesoamerica and in the Inca civilization of South America.”

This is not true. The Andean and Mesoamerican cultures have been obsessed with gold for thousands of years, most of their oral wand written legends refer to gold which could go back as far as 12,000 BC. These civilizations continue to tell us in their literature that the “gold belongs to the gods”. This would have made gold very important in their everyday lives and it was also the reason why their civilizations emerged.

“Gold was not prized by the Amerindians of Canada and the United States, and the aborigines of Australia seem not to have paid any attention to the precious metal.”

Could this have been because the Anunnaki did not find large deposits of gold in those areas to attract their attention? And therefore any human settlement for the purposes of mining gold only took place much later? Or their obsession with gold only reached them much later, once it became a 'human' obsession, inherited form the gods?

The past few pages were just a tiny taste of the confusion that surrounds the origins of gold on our planet. But the confusion and contradiction get much worse. I therefore have no problem whatsoever in turning to other scientific records that may be regarded as inferior or esoteric by many scholars, and rather try to unravel the real truth behind the rich ancient mythology and oral traditions of some cultures. Gold is a central feature in most, if not all ancient mythology. And yet, as strange as it may seem, after studying over 600 African mythological stories, I did not find one clear reference to gold. There may be some hidden imagery in some of them, but the general absence of gold in these stories is truly puzzling. It leads me to formulate some new theories. If Africa was in fact the cradle of the very first humans, and if they were created as a slave to work in the gold mines, they would have been a truly 'primitive worker' as the Sumerian scripts call them. As a primitive species, and in the very early days of human existence, they would have had no real feeling or understanding for what they were doing. As far as they saw it, they were given food and shelter while they performed some grueling tasks, the reason for which they did not understand. It was a routine, year in, year out. The 'stuff' they were digging up had absolutely no value to them. They could not eat it, or use it in any way. Only many of thousands of years later, when the human mental capacity increased dramatically and when interbreeding happened between humans and the 'godly' offspring of the Nefilim, did the newly-spawned more intelligent humans begin to give the metal value. This would have only occurred once civilization and Kingship was bestowed on humans by their 'gods' and only after the global system of trade and commerce entered the picture. The strange metal could have possibly developed some kind of strange sentimental value after the slaves began to set up their own settlements in Africa, and living away from the mining compounds. But they had no real understanding of the use for the metal, and the only expression of their intellect was to adorn themselves with it in many ways, to indicate their social standing and importance. Because just like their South American brethren, they always knew that the gold belonged to 'the gods'.

My assumption is that like many scientific theories, ridicule will often be followed by respect. When we go through the Sumerian texts in later chapters, you will be amazed at how simply it can all be explained if we just put our prejudice aside and keep our minds open to new realities.

You see, the first signs of ore mining in Mesoamerica date back to around 12,000 years ago, before the emergence of agriculture on Earth, and around the end of the last Ice Age. At this stage humans did not have it easy. They were constantly under threat from the elements and wild animals. They were concerned with shelter and food while leading a predominantly nomadic lifestyle. How and why would gold seem so attractive to them?

But the oldest signs of ore gold mining get even more interesting when you visit the so-called Cradle of Humankind, just 20 minutes north of Johannesburg, South Africa. While archaeologists were making amazing discoveries about the origins of humanity, they also stumbled onto previously unexplained phenomena regarding gold mining. They discovered layers upon layers of prehistoric mining activity, which was dated back to 7690 BC by scholars from Yale and Groningen Universities. This inspired the excavators to search a little further, only to be rewarded with a find of an ancient min near the famous landmark of the Lion Park. They uncovered a five-ton hematite stone which was covering a large cavern. Carbon dating a piece of charcoal near the mouth shocked the archaeologists when they found it to be from between 20,000 – 26,000 BC. Not believing what they had found, they searched further and exposed more mining access sites dating back to 41,000 BC, give or take 1600 years. Adrian Boshier and Peter Beaumont then extended their search to southern Swaziland where they found ancient mines containing twigs, leaves, grass and feathers which were most likely brought in by the miners. There were also notched bones, which indicate man's ability to count at such distant times. Other remains at the site date it back to around 50,000 BC. This must be a total riddle for historians, evolutionists and creationists alike. How on Earth is this possible? How will the supporters of the different doctrines explain this? This is where I would like to step in and remind the readers of my theory that creation and evolution should be considered simultaneously. The convergence of the two seems inevitable. While evolution is evident in most life forms around us, there is mounting evidence of a specific time when man was created. We will have to come to terms with the reality that the two philosophies will have to share the stage in the Great Human Puzzle.

We should not be surprised that prehistoric miners were already mining gold in southern Africa several hundred thousand years ago. After all, the geological landscape would not have changed at all since then, and if gold is still available in such abundance in tis part of th world today, it must have been available then. We must remember that until 1970, gold from South Africa made up over 75% of all global gold supplies. This clearly means that the early humans knew exactly where the gold was, or they were shown by someone more intelligent were to dig. So, we need to ask again... why would primitive man, immediately after being created, start to mine gold so vigorously? It simply does not make any sense.

Somehow the hunger for gold grew gluttonously over the years. So much so that ships were dispatched from the Old World by kings and popes to bring back as much as was humanly possible of this shiny yellow metal. From the birth of humanity people have killed for gold and continue to do so to this day. I grew up in one of those mining communities myself. This hunger for gold probably reached its most nauseating zenith during the blood-thirsty Spanish invasions of the New World. The abundance of gold found in the Mesoamericas by the Conquistadors, together with the mythical stories of golden cities like Eldorado and Cibola, certainly raise the question: where did the so-called primitive natives find all that gold? Story has it that during the 200-year activities of the Conquistadors, the Spaniards looted more gold from the Americas than has been mined in the entire known world since then. This could obviously never be substantiated, but makes for some juicy imagery. But the history books tell us a predictably thin tale of the history and origins of gold in the world. What is known however, is that gold has always been and seemingly always will be the center of great controversy, speculation and conspiracy.

At the center of the gold gluttony was the ever-present Vatican, which supported the exploits of the Conquistadors. The split was said to be 90% for the Vatican and 10% for the Spanish king. The king in turn had a separate agreement with the Conquistadors who undoubtedly had a free-for-all for themselves when overpowering the native Indian villages of the New World while looting their gold. It is also said that the Vatican holds most of the gold in the world. A popular conspiracy holds that the Vatican has not only attempted to, but largely succeeded in stealing all the USA gold reserves, with the aid of a succession of Jesuit US presidents. As far as conspiracies go, this one seems very interesting because it has some landmark presidential decisions to support it. The most famous is the decision by president Nixon on 15 August 1971, to divorce the Dollar from the gold standard. Suddenly the dollar no longer had gold to underpin its value and became just a piece of paper with a US government stamp on it. The Jesuit Order has been a powerful force in the murky waters of secret societies, linking them back to the formation of the 'Illuminati' around 1340 AD in the central German state of Hess, and even further back to the establishment of the Rosicrucian Lodge in 1100 AD in the German city of Worms, also in the state of Hess. The Jesuit Order was established in 1540 by a militant Christian soldier-turned-cleric, called Igatius of Loyola, as one of several Counter-Reformation organizations launched by the Catholics to suppress the rise of the Protestants. William Bramley has written a riveting book which deals extensively with most of the secret societies in our human history, linking us way back to the Garden of Eden and the so-called 'Brotherhood of the Snake'. It makes captivating reading as it unravels many dark and hidden secrets of our ancient past, pointing convincingly to some form of intervention by more evolved and more intelligent beings. But while they may have been more advanced, it does not mean they were not violent nor bloodthirsty. All these ugly characteristics are still clearly evident in humans today, as visible scars from ancient times. From our behavior and the manipulative control which has exercised over us by secret societies, we can deduce that the influence of these strange phenomena in many ways prevented humanity from evolving faster to discover the true secrets behind our origins. But at the same time, there seem to have been other secret societies that had always had the opposite effect on human progress. I will resist the temptation of getting too involved in this topic as Mr. Bramley has covered it superbly in The Gods of Eden.

But gold continued to play a pivotal role in human evolution to the extent that during the California Gold Rush starting around the 1850s, Vatican monks would basically use their cloth as a front to steal the gold from the native Indians along the Mexican and California coasts. There are reports of hard labor, slavery and torture of the natives, by Catholic monks in the name of god, and in pursuit of gold for the Vatican. Gold was probably the first metal known to humankind and references to it have appeared almost from the birth of writing. Our entire human history is inextricably linked to the production of gold. If we take at face value what the Sumerians have written in their tablets, we learn that we were created as a slave species by the Anunnaki, with the sole purpose to work in the gold mines. The answer to the question, “Why is mankind so obsessed with gold from the very beginning?” is quire simple. Gold was the first thing known to primitive man. He was surrounded by it and consumed by it. It was the principal reason why he was created. The truth is however, that it was not really man who was so consumed by gold, but his masters and gods, the Anunnaki.

When we explore this early obsession with gold, we begin to understand the overpowering effect it must have had on early humans, how it shaped their behavior in times to come, and how it drove their own vanity, greed and desire to be like their gods. Very quickly, this forbidden gold must have become the most desirable possession among the human slaves. They found ways to acquire it illegally, but gold was most likely also used to reward them from time to time for acts of obedience. So as time passed, a growing amount of gold made its way into human hands. Not really knowing what to do with it, or what its true purpose was, they started using their newly acquired forbidden fruit in unconventional ways. They turned it into bracelets, necklaces, rings, ornaments, trinkets and an every growing list of items which sole purpose was to show off its owner's elevated status in the emerging community. They made imitations of their gods' possessions, their chariots, their dwellings, their symbols and even their image. Archaeologists have uncovered countless numbers of effigies of many ancient gods. The value of gold suddenly exploded when the Anunnaki allowed the humans to leave the compounds of the mines and live on their own in growing communities.

This period seems to coincide precisely with the sudden emergence of civilization in the Near East around 7000 BC. Many humans settled here while continuing to work for their gods. The mines in the southern part of Africa continued to produce gold, but the human workers had now developed many communities that have spread over large parts of the continent. Golden artifacts attained the highest status symbol on Earth, and humans started to decorate themselves more and more with symbolic new jewelery. The more gold you possessed, the higher your status in the community. But is also meant that you had something to trade with or bargain with. This was exactly what the genetically modified human genome was waiting for. A stimulus to activate several dormant genes, which would cause continuous havoc for thousands of years to come. The greed gene, the gluttony gene, the opulence gene and a few more beauties hidden in our DNA, of which we are equally unaware at this stage. And so began the eternal race for possession and control among primitive humans, which is stronger today than every before. I have always been fascinated by primitive tribes around the world and the importance they place on decorative artifacts and shiny objects. I could never understand that there were so many similarities in their rituals and their gods while they are separated by thousands of miles, oceans and continents. But the common human ancestry with its magic, shiny ingredient seems to tie it all together. The many rituals performed by the forgotten tribes of the world still today, and the importance they place on ornamental and decorative objects, can all be linked to the birth of man some 200,000 years ago and the role which gold played in his evolution.

This obsession with gold was quickly adopted by Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age 10,000 – 4000 BC) and Neolithic (Near or Late Stone Age 4000 BC) humans in the Near East after the Great Flood some 13,00 years ago, while being helped by their gods to attain new knowledge of agriculture, architecture, communal living and more. We have evidence of this rapidly emerging and refined artistic culture from Sumerian artifacts. This know-how was successfully copied and developed to staggering proportions by the Egyptian royalty. Everyone in the world today is acutely aware of the great Egyptian achievements and the great wealth they accumulated. The amount of gold found in many of the Pharaohs 'burial' chambers astounded archaeologists when it was first discovered. This was something that the tomb raiders of the past 200 years knew very well, as they plundered these riches from the early days of post-diluvial humanity.

But by this time, some gods had decided to help man out of bondage and empower him with knowledge for survival. This caused unprecedented tension among the Anunnaki gods which led to argument, conflict and bloody battles for control of a rapidly dividing world. Various gods took refuge in distant corners of the world like the Americas, China, Australia, India or wherever they could set p a secure base for themselves. Every step of the way, the dispersed Anunnaki had their human slaves to perform the hard labor in the process of building new civilizations around them. The gods controlled the humans with an iron fist, giving them strict instructions on most things, rewarding them when they felt it appropriate and punishing them severely if the human slave disobeyed. This is pretty much the story of most popular religions from the beginning of time, especially the Old Testament. We examine the so-called 'wrath of god' in other chapters, which show us the distinct human-like needs displayed by the ancient gods. This globalization by the gods explains why the same strict dictator-like behavior was witnessed all around the world by virtually all the communities of early humans.

While the Egyptian artistry and creation of spectacular golden artifacts were unprecedented on Earth, the cradle of goldsmiths was in fact the Sumerian civilization starting as far back as 5000 BC, according to the latest digs in Iraq and Syria. Nestled between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, they set most of the trends for global generations to follow. They traded their wheat and barley, upstream and downstream for other gods, including gold. The Greeks later called this Mesopotamia, the 'Land Between the rivers'. Here the Sumerians appeared and flourished until around 2000 BC in cities like Uruk, Larsa, Umma and Ur. These cities had a network of well-planned streets and well organized societies. They pioneered cuneiform writing on clay tablets the size of a postcard, and wrote poetry. Their craftsmanship with wood, stone, ivory, semi-precious stones and especially gold, was astonishing. Many of these are to be admired at the British Museum in London, the University Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and nearer to its origins, at the Baghdad Museum in Iraq, which was unfortunately decimated by looters during the George W. Bush attacks. Gold cups, helmets, bracelets, garlands and chains of delicate workmanship, reveal an exceptional understanding of how to exploit gold's unique properties of malleability, ductility and resilience. Jewelery historian Guido Gregorietti observed of the Sumerian times that, “In fact, there were more different types of jewelry than there are today.”

But did the Sumerians really write the opening chapter in the history of gold, or was it happening simultaneously in other parts of the world? They may have been the pioneers in golden jewelry production, but gold was being mined all over the world under the supervision of rebellious gods with the knowledge of mining and the desire to claim a piece of this planet for themselves.

You see, Sumer itself did not have gold, so it had to import it from somewhere. This was probably a great opportunity for the new custodian gods scattered around the world to bring their golden spoils to Sumer, establishing trade links while keeping their human slaves back home working, fearful and obedient. Jewelry expert Graham Hughes says, “Sumerian work is flavored with amazing sophistication, delicacy of touch, fluency of line, a general elegance of conception, all suggest that the goldsmiths' craft emerged almost fully fledged in early Mesopotamia.” How is that possible? That primitive humans emerged out of the Stone Age, set up well-structured communities, and immediately showed great knowledge of manufacturing some of the most refined golden jewelry we know today? Sumerian treasures reveal how well the goldsmiths understood working with gold. They used different alloys, and cast gold in solid or hollow ornaments. They chased veins on leaves or grooves on beads using the lost-wax technique. Jugs or cups could be beaten into shape from a flat sheet of gold, using sophisticated heat treatment. They even beat gold into thin foil or ribbon. This kind of sudden knowledge and sophistication clearly points to some form of intelligent intervention, which could only have come from their Anunnaki masters and gods.

So now we know that the origin of humanity is somehow directly linked to the production of gold on Earth. That the human slaves were aided towards civilization by their gods and makers, who accidentally created the gold trade on Earth by dispersing and forcing their own group of human slaves to mine the precious metal. While there was gold mining activity and jewelry making going on in may centers of the world, Sumer was the main concentration of Anunnaki gods on Earth, and therefore it became the fasted growing center of civilization, setting the standard for an accidental industry which consumes most of the gold in the world today. This is the incredible story of the jewelry industry, which was an accidental by-product of a slave species and a group of occupying astronaut gods. The East consumes over 75% of the annual global production of gold in the 21st century AD. In 2002 this amounted to 2,726.7 metric tons.

We must take a step back to avoid being blinded by all this incredible stuff. After all, we have come a long way in 11,000 years. We have evolved mentally and physically. If we have much of the Anunnaki DNA in our cells, we need to ask ourselves, how advanced were they really? My theory is that they were not as advanced as I many have originally thought. I say this because the behavior they displayed from the very first day on this planet, bears the symptoms of a species that falls way short of a complete genome. We have inherited many of their characteristics. I just pray that we lose the primitive desire to cover ourselves with shiny metal as we evolve towards more intelligent beings. After all, it was all a big accident.

But to protect themselves against possible competition from a new species on Earth, the Anunnaki gods ensured that the genome of the slave species was severely stunted. They ensured that the new human species did not live too long, was prove to disease, did not use much of its brain and had a finite memory. But the one thing they did not count on was the evolution of our genome and our intelligence. Maybe they did not consider the evolutionary aspects, because they truly did not expect to stay on this planet for so long. - pages 104-128

- Slave Species of god, by Michael Tellinger

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